Notes on Introduction to Philosophy -- Phil A201
William Jamison - Instructor
Twelfth lecture notes for Introduction to Philosophy:
These notes are under construction. The following are only the slides used in the presentations:
John Stuart Mill
1806 - 1873
Follows Jeremy Bentham - Utilitarian
Governmental reforms to help the poor
1823 Mill followed his father into the employ of the British East India Company, which he served continuously until 1858.
Mill's mental crisis when in his 20's.
1830, Mill meets Harriet Taylor
Mill's Life and Work
one term in Parliament (1865-68)
System of Logic (1843)
Principles of Political Economy (1848)
On Liberty (1859)
Utilitarianism (1863) -the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
The Subjection of Women (1869)
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
Replicability and controls
There is one supreme principle of morality: an act is right or wrong depending on the total good or evil it produces.
Consequentialist -- ends justify means
Justice implies something which it is not only right to do, and wrong not to do, but which some individual person can claim from us as his moral right.
No one has a moral right to our generosity or beneficence.
Security is the most vital of all interests.
The principle, therefore, of giving to each what they deserve, that is, good for good as well as evil for evil, is not only included within the idea of Justice as we have defined it, but is a proper object of that intensity of sentiment.
Any ethical theory whatever may lead to unsatisfactory outcomes if one assumes that idiocy is widespread.
Mistake is made by incorporating a conception of the right that requires an agent to abandon his or her own projects and plans, any time some alternative set of activities would be productive of a better overall state of affairs. (Rawls)
1804 - 1872
The object of religious devotion is really the capacities which make up human nature.
Those capacities were attributed to a Being who was completely 'other,' outside of the world.
In comparison humanity seemed contemptible. Humanity was repressed for the sake of sacrificial service to God.
Feuerbach's assertion that the predicates of God and humanity are really the same is simply and obviously wrong.
To say that it is the subject, God, that is exaggerated and not the predicates, so that the predicates are still applicable to humanity, is nonsense because the subject only has a nature through the predicates applied to it.
Feuerbach's influence on Marx
When an ideal has psychological power over a person, it becomes something Holy. Feuerbachian humanism was a new religion.
Marx made this religion Communism
but he says: "If I know religion as alienated human self-consciousness what I know in it as religion is not my self-consciousness but my alienated self-consciousness confirmed in it."
Karl Marx 1818
Primarily social and economic influence
Naturalized Hegelianism - man as a "species being."
Concept of alienation
objective being (production)
This page is maintained by William S. Jamison. It was last updated July 10, 2016. All links on these pages are either to open source or public domain materials or they are marked with the appropriate copyright information. I frequently check the links I have made to other web sites but each source is responsible for their own content.